Health

Rehabilitation after hip replacement: factors affecting the recovery process, possible postoperative complications, rehabilitation methods, diet

After hip replacement, rehabilitation is important. Learn more from the article.

The procedure for installing an artificial joint (endoprosthetics) is quite complicated. But no less responsible and significant is the period of postoperative recovery, which largely determines whether the implant will take root, whether it becomes convenient, whether a person can return to a full life and free movement. After all, a construction implanted in the body, whatever one may say, is a foreign body, and in order to completely “get used to” it, it takes time and, of course, effort.

According to statistics, older people most often require endoprosthetics, for whom the recovery process is even more problematic. And the tasks of this period are quite complicated, since it is necessary to completely return the amount of stress on the limb, while at the same time preventing the risk of complications and pain.

Factors affecting the recovery process after hip replacement

Recovery programs are purely individual, since the doctor must take into account many factors. So, first of all, the age of the patient is taken into account, which in turn affects the tone in which the muscles are, and the general state of health. The degree of complexity of both the operation itself and the reaction to it from the body must also be taken into account.

Rehabilitation is important

Depending on muscle tone, the content of primary loads is developed, which should gradually increase, become more intense. If, trying to quickly get on his feet and return to free movement without a crutch or stick, the patient immediately tries to start with the maximum load, the case can only turn into a deterioration in the rehabilitation process, or even a violation of the healing process of damaged tissues and organs.

Possible postoperative complications after hip replacement

In order to check the general state of health and to make sure that there are no possible reactions (inflammation or allergies) in case the body rejects the implant, studies are carried out on the basis of general and biochemical blood and urine tests. There may also be “malfunctions” with the prosthesis itself, in particular, it may shift or become loose, and even partially lose its functional properties. There is also a risk of developing various infections both in the joint itself and in the wound remaining after surgery.

Fortunately, the statistics add optimism: postoperative complications are recorded only in 2.5% of older people. Among young people, this figure is even lower - only 1%.

Depending on age

The timing of rehabilitation is significantly different for people of different ages. So, bone tissue in older people is noticeably weaker and thinner. This fragility of the bones slows down the regeneration process, therefore, the recovery technique is adjusted taking into account age-related changes in tissues and bones.

Younger patients, whose bones are stronger, tend to become faster on their feet.

Age matters

However, there are out-of-age recommendations acceptable for those who have undergone surgery at any age. There are not many of them, but it is worth strictly observing them. So, in no case should you immediately try to fully extend your leg, this will put an excessive load on the surviving joint. Avoid any possible injury or shock, do not make sudden movements. The first three and a half postoperative months do not forget about the need to bandage the legs. Until you are confident in your abilities and in the necessary degree of healing of postoperative wounds, as well as implant survival (and this is not less than 3-4 months), you should not sit behind the wheel of a car, take a steam bath.

Women in this period should forget about the existence of shoes with heels (especially stilettos!), Which reduce the stability of the position of the body, create an additional burden on the joint.

Before and after surgery

The rehabilitation period begins even before the operation itself. Understanding that crutches will become your support in the near future, you should learn to use them, excluding the load on the sore limb. In addition, train the muscles of the second leg, which will take on additional load. Attention should also be paid to the work of all the basic systems of your body, to strengthen them.

  • The first decade after the operation is probably the most responsible. The patient still can not get up, but even lying on his back should already begin to recover. He can gradually, from 10 to 20 minutes, using a special roller to change the position of the knee joint.
  • Starting from the fourth day after the operation, doctors are allowed to turn, first on their side (of course, from the healthy and not operated side of the body), and after another day or two - onto the stomach.
  • It is during this period that you can begin to do the first, the most lightweight in relation to the loads, exercises from the individual set of exercises of physiotherapy exercises developed by the doctor. To help the vessels, the use of an elastic bandage does not hurt. If necessary, antibiotics and pain medication are prescribed.
  • Subsequently, within 2-3 months, the main restoration work takes place. The loads increase, they are aimed at developing muscles, at restoring the functions of the limbs. A person re-develops such familiar and previously natural movements as walking, overcoming the stairs up and down. And here crutches help a lot, the development of which took place in the preoperative period.
Replacement

Three months later, the rehabilitation goes into the stage of gradual entry into the daily rhythm, returning to the usual daily activities. During this period, the main task is to comprehensively strengthen the muscles.

Rehabilitation methods for replacement after the hip joint

Like any therapeutic measure, a comprehensive approach is used in the recovery process after endoprosthetics. If necessary, the pharmacological effect is obtained with the help of antibiotics and analgesics, later they are replaced by vitamins, the main place among which is given to preparations containing such useful and necessary bone tissue calcium.

  • Physiotherapy - an integral part of the rehabilitation process, since the action of such procedures is aimed at restoring not just the operated areas and their inherent functions, but to improving overall well-being, stimulating the work of all body systems, and increasing muscle tone. This is precisely what hydrotherapeutic and cryotherapeutic procedures are aimed at, the use of magnetotherapy and electrical stimulation of tissues and muscles. If swelling occurs, laser therapy sessions help.
  • If necessary, additional fixation of the joint resort to orthosis, i.e. the use of a bandage. Such an orthosis "transfers" the additional burden to healthy areas, thereby facilitating the patient.
  • Method kinesitherapy involves working with the return of walking functions using additional tools to facilitate the process: crutches, canes, walkers or exercise machines.
Kinesitherapy
  • Also, to improve blood circulation and tissue repair, massage, but only if there is no strong pain.

Where can I get rehabilitation after replacing my hip :?

The easiest and most affordable option is at home. This method is probably the most comfortable psychologically, because at home, where the familiar environment is around, native people and even walls, as they say, help, the patient feels calm and confident.

But there are several problems, and quite significant. Firstly, it complicates the control of a doctor, who will still periodically either have to travel to or call home. The same applies to a specialist physiotherapist, massage services. The presence of video communication may be of some help, but not all of it is provided, and visual contact is not always enough, because tactile sensations are often necessary.

  • You can take a rehabilitation course in specialized clinicwhich is equipped with everything necessary for this. In addition to the availability of all the required devices, tools and simulators, the plus is also the constant monitoring by specialists who not only develop a set of universal measures, but also adjust it taking into account the characteristics of the patient.
In the clinic
  • The same set of services can be obtained at municipal clinics, and, importantly, for free. But among the shortcomings of such rehabilitation is the limited time (usually in a state clinic the rehabilitation course lasts no longer than two weeks), and often the weaker material base, the lack of the latest technology innovations.
  • And finally commercial rehabilitation centerswho are ready to provide you with a full range of services using ultra-modern equipment, providing not only comfortable living conditions, but also rich informative leisure. Here you are guaranteed a polite walk and constant attention. There is only one question left - the amount of money that you can give for such a postoperative recovery.

Diet during rehabilitation after hip replacement

As after any operation, exceptionally light vegetable soups, viscous cereals, lean beef or chicken chopped by a blender are recommended in the early days. Over time, more and more new foods are gradually added to the diet, but you should still refrain from everything smoked, spicy, fried, pickled, as well as from sweets. The efforts of the body should be aimed at restoring the hip joint, and not at the "war" in the intestines or stomach.

Diet is important

The average duration of full rehabilitation after hip replacement surgery is about a year. Younger patients go this way faster, older people take longer. If by the nature of your activity you do not have to stand for a long time, then you can start working, as a rule, in 3-4 months.

And one moment. The restoration of the body will be much more successful if a person feels constant support and psychological help from relatives and friends.

Watch the video: Physical Rehab Following ACL Reconstruction. Carole Netter, PT, MS, OCS (April 2020).