Disease, pathology, dysfunction of the temporal mandibular joint: causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

TMJ pathology requires an immediate solution, and how exactly you will learn from the article.

Dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is manifested in malfunctions of the coordination of the joint itself as a result of disturbances in the contact static and dynamic ratio of teeth, joint structure and muscle function. This is one of the most common jaw pathologies.

This disease, affecting many departments of medicine, because its cure largely depends on the coordinated actions of not only dentists, but also neurologists, psychologists.

Causes of the temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Certainly the main reason are abnormal processes in the jaws and defects of the teeth themselves, from injuries and improper contact between the teeth, to errors in prosthetics. If a person chews food on one side or by the nature of his activity he has to talk a lot, this can also contribute to chronic microtraumas, and therefore provoke a pathology of the temporomandibular joint.

  • Unconscious grip or gnashing of teeth (such a feature is called bruxism) is another of the causes of the disease, since it entails the abrasion of tooth enamel. One of the factors entailing the development of TMJ is the disproportion of articular elements.
  • The direction associated with psychogenic factors determines its reasons for the development of TMJ, considering it to be a cause of malfunctioning of the central nervous system, in particular, a nervous or physical disorder, which leads to disruption of muscle functioning, including and jaw. So, under the influence of stress, many people have an unconscious contraction of the masticatory muscles, which leads to their spasm.
  • Cause of pathology birth injury, an infectious disease, an inflammatory process in the middle ear can also become. Medical errors are not excluded: an incorrectly placed seal, for example, violates the symmetry and often leads to a unilateral load of the jaw with all the ensuing consequences.

Symptoms of the temporomandibular joint dysfunction

One of the main symptoms - A feeling of dull pain in the TMJ zone. Eating, you can hear the clicks of the jaw. Headaches, discomfort in the spine (namely, in the cervical spine) are possible, dizziness is not ruled out.

Joint problems
  • Hearing loss decreases, and there is noise in the ears, clapping, a sensation of sore throat or nose - all these are symptoms of TMJ.
  • The joint can “wedge” and it is not always possible to open the mouth wide enough, for this you have to make several attempts, moving your jaw.
  • Pain can spread to the area of ​​the ears, teeth, neck, possibly a feeling of pressure on the eyes, up to visual impairment.
  • According to the nature of the pain, the pathology of the TMJ is sometimes similar to otitis media, trigeminal neuralgia, etc.
  • With a TMJ pathology, sleep disorder, tooth grinding, depressive state, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, pain in the tongue, photophobia, snoring, etc. are also not ruled out.

Diagnosis of TMJ diseases

It is quite difficult to diagnose TMJ dysfunction, since it has very diverse manifestations related to the field of both dentistry and neurology.

Important to diagnose
  • The joint is palpated, the sounds formed during its operation, the possibility of full opening of the mouth, the mobility of the jaw are determined. A relief impression of the occlusal contacts of the teeth is made.
  • In order to make a more accurate diagnosis, almost all diagnostic methods are used: ultrasound, X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, blood circulation in the periarticular region is studied, bioelectric potentials that occur in skeletal muscles upon excitation of muscle fibers, joint noise is determined, and compression strength indicators are recorded before the onset of pain in the joint, etc.
  • All these special research methods make it possible to differentiate the TMJ pathology from diseases of a different etiology and jaw injuries.

Treatment of temporomandibular joint dysfunction

The basic and general rule in the treatment of TMJ diseases of any complexity is a reduced load on the joint. It consists in softer food, reducing the tension of the speech apparatus.

  • Since TMJ dysfunction is a polyetiological disease, not only dentists are involved in the treatment, often the help of specialists in the field of surgery, orthopedics, gastroenterology, otorhinolaryngology, vertebrology (treatment of spinal pathologies), psychology and neurology, manual therapy and one of its methods - osteopathy and etc.

Drug treatment is aimed at relieving pain and consists in taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs:

  • voltaren
  • nimesil
  • celebrex
  • ibuprofen
  • ketanol
  • aspirin
  • ketarol


  • afobazole
  • fevarin
  • amitriptyline
  • cipralex
  • pyrazidol
  • grandaxin

Means that have a general calming effect on the central nervous system:

  • sirdalud
  • midcalm

Botulinum toxins, chondroprotectors:

  • chondrolone
  • chondroitin
  • teraflex

Steroid hormones, glucocorticosteroids, are introduced inside.

Drug treatment

In the treatment of using elements myogymnastics, resort to massage, physiotherapy procedures: low-intensity laser therapy, the use of a high-frequency magnetic field, electrophoresis, ultrasound procedures, acupuncture, etc. Psychotherapeutic factors and special biofeedback therapy work together, during which the patient learns to relax the chewing muscles.

In the field of dentistry, the treatment process is aimed at achieving the correct bite; if necessary, braces, mouth guards, orthopedic tires are used. According to indications, correction with prosthetics is possible.

Dental treatment

If drug treatment and dental measures are not very effective, resort to the surgical method. Methods of minimally invasive surgery include arthroscopy, arthrocentesis, tissue infiltration of the temporomandibular joint. Myotomy is possible (dissection of the muscle to restore its function), condylotomy (dissection of the head of the joint), etc.

It is necessary to do without treatment for TMJ dysfunction, otherwise you can wait until the joint is completely motionless. And in order to prevent the development of pathology, doctors recommend avoiding stress, not overloading the joint, treating it in time and, if necessary, replacing the teeth. Teeth and jaw - this is a single system in which a malfunction of one link entails its destruction.

Watch the video: Temporomandibular joint dysfunction- causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology (April 2020).